• Uses number names and symbols when comparing numbers, showing interest in large numbers
  • Estimates of numbers of things, showing understanding of relative size


  • Enjoys reciting numbers from 0 to 10 (and beyond) and back from 10 to 0
  • Increasingly confident at putting numerals in order 0 to 10 (ordinality)


  • Engages in subitising numbers to four and maybe five
  • Counts out up to 10 objects from a larger group.
  • Matches the numeral with a group of items to show how many there are (up to 10)


  • Shows awareness that numbers are made up (composed) of smaller numbers, exploring partitioning in different ways with a wide range of objects
  • Begins to conceptually subitise larger numbers by subitising smaller groups within the number, e.g. sees six raisins on a plate as three and three
  • In practical activities, adds one and subtracts one with numbers to 10
  • Begins to explore and work out mathematical problems, using signs and strategies of their own choice, including (when appropriate) standard numerals, tallies and  “+” or “-“

Spatial Awareness

  • Uses spatial language, including following and giving directions, using relative terms and describing what they see from different viewpoints
  • Investigates turning and flipping objects in order to make shapes fit and create models; predicting and visualising how they will look (spatial reasoning)
  • May enjoy making simple maps of familiar and imaginative environments, with landmarks


  • Uses informal language and analogies, (e.g. heart-shaped and hand-shaped leaves), as well as mathematical terms to describe shapes
  • Enjoys composing and decomposing shapes, learning which shapes combine to make other shapes
  • Uses own ideas to make models of increasing complexity, selecting blocks needed, solving problems and visualising what they will build


  • Spots patterns in the environment, beginning to identify the pattern “rule”
  • Chooses familiar objects to create and recreate repeating patterns beyond AB patterns and begins to identify the unit of repeat


  • Enjoys tackling problems involving prediction and discussion of comparisons of length, weight or capacity, paying attention to fairness and accuracy
  • Becomes familiar with measuring tools in everyday experiences and play
  • Is increasingly able to order and sequence events using everyday language related to time
  • Beginning to experience measuring time with timers and calendars