• Give time and make spaces  for children to initiate discussions from shared experiences and have conversations with peers and adults.
  • Give thinking time for children to decide what they want to say and how they will say it.
  • Encourage language play, e.g. through stories such as Goldilocks and the Three Bears and action songs that require intonation.
  • Decide on the key vocabulary linked to activities, and ensure that all practitioners make opportunities to use the words in a range of contexts such as songs, stories, games, activities and natural conversations..
  • Plan collaborative activities. Help children to think and talk about how they will begin, what parts each will play and what materials they will need. Review activities with children and encourage them to think about and discuss the strategies they used. 
  • Provide opportunities for talking for a wide range of purposes, e.g. to present ideas to others as descriptions, explanations, instructions or justifications, and to discuss and plan individual or shared activities.
  • Provide opportunities for children to participate in meaningful speaking and listening activities. For example, children can take models that they have made to show children in another group or class and explain how they were made.