Characteristics of Effective Learning resources

Rationale for Characteristics of Effective Learning, extract from the Tickell Report (The Early Years: Foundations for life, health and learning, An Independent Report on the Early Years Foundation Stage to Her Majesty’s Government by Dame Clare Tickell, pp. 85-91) 2011, D16(8857)/0311

Case studies – Characteristics of Effective Learning — what is a child doing, what is the adult role? Birth to 5 Matters document (PDF)

Whitebread, D. (2019) Developing Essential Skills:  Supporting self-regulation in 3-4 year olds Early Years Teachers Handbook, Sutton Trust.

Bristol City Council (2020) Bristol Characteristics of Effective Learning document 

Laevers, F. (Ed) (2005) Leuven scales Well-being and Involvement in Care Settings. A Process-oriented Self-evaluation Instrument, Kind & Gezin and Research Centre for Experiential Education, Leuven University

Prof Ferre Laevers keynote, 2016, Early Years Scotland (video)

Claxton, G. (2003) Learning is learnable – and we ought to teach it, In the National Commission for Education report Ten Years On, edited by Sir John Cassell, 2004

Ackerley, R. (2013) The “Soft,” “Non-Cognitive” Skills are Hard, Cognitive and Critical, blog: The Genius in Children.

Belonging, Being & Becoming – The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (nd) Outcome 4: Children are confident and involved learners (PDF)

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2018) Understanding Motivation: Building the Brain Architecture That Supports Learning, Health, and Community Participation Working Paper No. 14. Harvard Center on the Developing Child.

Hoskins, B. & Deakin Crick, R. (2008) Learning to Learn and Civic Competences, JRC Scientific & Technical Reports, European Commission Joint Research Centre: Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen and Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL)

Center for Self-Determination Theory webpages on Basic Psychological Needs and Intrinsic Motivation

Moorhouse, P. (nd) Curiosity.

Ackerman, C.E. (2021) Growth Mindset vs. Fixed + Key Takeaways From Dweck’s Book, Positive Pyschology blog.

Early Learning Consultancy (nd) Supporting children’s intrinsic motivation and growth mindset

Art Costa (2014) What are habits of mind? (video) on James Anderson’s Habits of Mind website,

Lansbury, J. (2014) Don’t help this child, video and blog

Ruckdschel, S. (2013) Building student grit: Is Hard Work and Effort More Important than IQ? Susan Ruckdschel’s Blog for Lteracy Solutions.

Moylett, H. (2021) Persistence is important – some messages from researchTwo short (slightly updated) extracts from Moylett (2013) Active Learning, London: MA Education Ltd.

Sharp, C. (2004) Developing young children’s creativity: what can we learn from research?, NFER

Grainger, T., Craft, A. and Burnard, P. (2007) Examining possibility thinking in action in early years settings

Markham, L. (nd) 12 tips to raise a competent child, Aha Parenting website.

Mindsets – self-theories, page on the Learning-Knowledge website

DCSF (2010) Finding and Exploring Young Children’s Fascinations, The National Strategies Early Years document

Whitebread, D. (2009) Play and Self-regulation in Young ChildrenPresentation to the EARLI Conference, Amsterdam

Play Scotland (2011) Getting it Right for Play – The power of play: an evidence base

DCSF (2009) Learning, Playing and Interacting: good practice in the Early Years Foundation Stage, The National Strategies Early Years document

Experiments and Encounters: examples of Characteristics of Effective Learning in action from Sightlines Initiative:

Dewar, G. (2011-2019) Teaching self-control: Evidence-based tips, Parenting Science website

Early Learning Consultancy (nd) Scaffolding self-regulated learning, handout

Executive function: Resources from Harvard Centre on the Developing Child:

McClelland, M.M., Cameron, C.E., Duncan, R., Bowles, R.P., . Acock, A.C., Miao, A. and Pratt, M.E. (2014) Predictors of early growth in academic achievement: the head-toes-knees-shoulders task Front Psychol. 2014; 5: 599

Hernández M.M., Eisenberg N., Valiente C., Spinrad T.L., Johns S.K., Berger R.H., Silva K.M., Diaz A., Gal-Szabo D.E., Thompson M.S., Southworth J. (2018) Self-Regulation and Academic Measures Across the Early Elementary School Grades: Examining Longitudinal and Bidirectional Associations Early Educ Dev 2018;29(7):914-938

Neuenschwander, R., Röthlisberger, M., Cimeli, P., Roebers, C.M. (2012) How do different aspects of self-regulation predict successful adaptation to school? J Exp Child Psychol 2012 Nov;113(3):353-71

McClelland, M.M., Acock, A.C., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S.A., Stallings, M.C. (2013) Preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes Early Child Res Q. 2013 Apr 1;28(2):314-324.

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